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中国古代保镖The ancient Chinese bodyguard

时间:2016-5-20 17:05:08 查看:1606  来源:www.shzh007.com

                                         

                                         上海政华国际保镖公司

                           www.shzh007.com


 保卫国家领导人,是一个国家的头等大事。中外亦然,古今亦然。

  古代的“中南海保镖”是怎么挑选的,又是怎么执行安保任务的呢?
  周朝的警卫人员重出身,主要考虑“政治上可靠”
  保卫国家领导人的条例,在古代叫皇家禁卫制度。在上古夏商周三代时期,就有一套相对完备的制度。记录周代典章制度的《周礼》中,便出现了负责皇家禁卫的专业人员,安保设计相当周密。
  负责周王安保工作的,叫“宫正”,“掌王宫之戒令纠禁,以时比宫中之官府、次舍之众寡,为之版以待。”大概意思是,宫正负责周王宫中禁令的制定和日常纠察、查禁,按时检查王宫中各官府及值宿守卫人员,并做好记录,整理成册,以备查验。
  如果遇到突发事件,警卫人手不够,则会紧急征调各官府的官员子弟参与警卫,对进出人员盘查严格,禁止宫内外人员不按规定时间进出王宫。如果有需要,可随时对可疑人员进行检查,甚至搜身,即所谓“稽其功绪,纠其德行,几其出入”。
  古代国家领导人居住与办公地,称为 “禁地”,故其警卫人员称为“禁卫”,警卫部队称为“禁军”。当时周王禁地内明暗岗哨多多,“周庐千列,设戟百重”,欲行刺很难得逞。
  保卫周王分几班人马,依居、行、守三种警卫要求的不同,而选派出相应的警卫人员。其中负责王宫内日常值守的人马最重要,要经过严格“政审”,必须是贵族子弟出身。宫内值守负责人叫“宗伯”,算是周王心腹中的心腹,地位很高。
  周王的警卫人员重出身,主要考虑贵族子弟“政治上可靠”,还有当人质的意思,可避免诸侯、大臣在外叛乱。这套“政治上可靠”,讲究家庭出身的政审制度,为历代统治者借鉴,非亲信、心腹是当不了“警卫队长”的。

秦朝建立的一套武装保卫国家领导人制度,成为后代范本
  进入封建社会后,保卫国家领导的警卫人员数量大大增加,素质也得到极大提升,形成了完整的警卫体系,出现了独立的武装警卫部队。
  秦朝建立的一套武装保卫国家领导人制度,成为后代范本:从内到外有三个警卫层次,有“卫尉”、“郎中令”、“中尉”分别统领的三套人马,执行不同的安保任务,警卫力量分工明确。
  遗憾的是,虽然秦朝保卫国家领导人有“三保险”,却是出纰漏最多的朝代之一。
  比如,秦二世胡亥便是让自己的“警卫队长”、郎中令赵高杀死的。
  可能是吸取了秦二世被禁军杀死的严重教训,汉朝在保卫国家领导人的制度设计上更讲究,分工更明确。西汉有两支武装保卫力量,即“南军”和“北军”。
  南军是核心警卫,负责西汉皇宫——未央宫的警卫工作,相当于“中南海警卫团”;北军是负责整个长安城防卫工作的,相当于京城卫戍部队。接着,刘彻又改造了北军,增建7支禁军,总共8校尉,分别驻扎在都城郊区,互不统属,直接由皇帝指挥。
  后来,刘彻还成立了“绣衣直指挥使”,也由皇帝直接指挥。绣衣直指挥使可随时到街头侦察缉捕不法之徒,是游离于法律之外的特务恐怖组织,后来的明朝锦衣卫也或受此影响。
  如果皇帝控制不了禁军,麻烦便大了。如东汉末期,皇帝根本指挥不动禁军,曹操成了禁军的实际统帅。最精锐的“虎豹骑”是禁军中的亲军,名义上是保卫献帝刘协,实则是奉曹操之命看守这位皇帝。
宋朝警卫部队规模最庞大,创建“三衙禁军”安保体系
  宋朝禁军规模之庞大、体系之复杂,都是以往所没有的。
  开国皇帝赵匡胤,曾任后周禁军将领,又是通过兵变坐上皇帝宝座的,深知警卫部队的重要。所以,他格外重视禁军的组建,营建禁卫精兵的同时,又收编地方军,扩充中央禁军,构筑出了史上最庞大的国家警卫部队。
  宋太祖开宝年间,全国军人37.8万人,其中禁军便有19.4万人。后来每位皇帝都重视禁军的建设,宋太宗至道年间全国军人66.6万,其中禁军35.8万。到宋仁宗庆历年间,全国禁军达到了82.6万。
  值得注意的是,宋朝禁军不只保卫皇帝,还保卫国家疆土,为国出征。有的驻屯地方,但大部分护卫京城,驻扎于汴京城外。禁军很讲究训练,《水浒传》中的林冲便是汴京八十万禁军教头,其枪棒功夫尤其出色。
  “京军”中担任皇帝警卫任务的“精兵”,要求日日练武,骑兵每天五练,步兵每天四练。
  然而,宋代禁军不少都是摆设,仪式化明显。因为禁军实在太多,到国力下降时,连军饷都没有。宋神宗赵顼便曾为此感叹道:“穷吾国者,冗兵也。”后来,朝廷每年都进行一次禁军整并。到南宋时,禁军的规模便缩减很多。

明朝引入秘密警察侦探
  到了明朝,对国家领导人的保卫则更为严密。其中最突出的一点,是引进了现代警卫制度中的“秘密警察”制度。在尚未称帝时,开国皇帝朱元璋 (明太祖)便建立了自己的直属警卫团——“侍卫上直亲军拱卫司”,称帝后次年又扩编为“亲军都督府”。
  洪武十五年(1382年),朱元璋撤销了此前的皇家警卫团“亲军都督府”和“仪銮司”,创造了一支新的皇家警卫力量——“锦衣卫亲军指挥使司”,简称“锦衣卫”。随后又组建了“旗手卫”、“府前军卫”等十二个禁卫机构,总称“上十二卫”。
  明成祖朱棣对这套安保体系很青睐,篡位当了皇帝后便恢复了一度被朱元璋撤销的锦衣卫镇抚司,并将十二卫亲兵扩充为二十二卫,建立了一套比汉唐更先进的、“军队与警察”相结合的国家领导人保卫体系。
  这“警察”,就是负责京城区域巡逻、维护治安的五城兵马司
更恐怖的是,朱棣设了“东厂”,这是直接听命于皇帝的秘密组织,厂主都是皇帝宠信的太监。朱见深(明宪宗)当皇帝时又设立了“西厂”。虽然存在时间不长,但与东厂一样,是臭名昭著的秘密警察机构。
  清朝在继承明朝这套国家领导人安保体系的同时,对警卫人员的选拔有新规定,强调出身,直接负责皇帝警卫的掌守门户和侍从兼宿卫两班人马,均得由满族官宦子弟来担任。
  20岁的和糰承袭三等轻车都尉,26岁于乾隆三十七年当上了正五品的三等侍卫。史籍载称,乾隆四十年的一天,和糰随驾出宫。“上偶于舆中阅边报,有奏要犯脱逃者,上微怒,诵《论语》‘虎兕出于柙’之语”。扈从校尉不知此系何意,和糰却立即对答说:“爷谓典守者不得辞其责耳。”乾隆听后很高兴,问和糰:“读过 《论语》?”和糰说,读过。“又问家世、年岁,奏对皆称旨”。乾隆“见其仪度俊雅,声音清亮”,“矫捷异常”,十分赞赏,“自是恩礼日隆”。
  和糰以自己的聪明才智和善于临机应变,博得了皇上的欢心,青云直上,立即于闰十月迁乾清门侍卫,十一月升御前侍卫,授正蓝旗满洲都统(从一品武职)。此后,他不断升迁,而最初还是靠的朝廷警卫的身份。

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Defend the country leader, is a national priority. Chinese and foreign, ancient and modern.

The ancient "zhongnanhai bodyguards" what is chosen, and how security tasks?

Guards of the zhou dynasty heavy background, main consideration "politically reliable"

Ordinance to defend national leaders, in ancient times called the royal guard system. In ancient times, from xia-shang-zhou dynasties is a set of relatively complete system. Record judgments system in the rites of zhou dynasty, there is a professional personnel in charge of the royal guard, security design quite carefully.

Is responsible for Zhou Wang security, is called "palace", "return to the palace of the ring to rectify banned, than when to house the government, and the time of the betrayal, for version." Probably mean, palace is responsible for weeks in the palace ban make daily and picket, suppressed, check all the rulers in the palace and the value SuShouWei personnel in time, and make records, filed, for inspection.

If there are any emergencies, guard shorthanded, emergency duty of the government officials children will participate in the guards, to personnel in and out of the can strictly, personnel outside the forbidden palace is not in accordance with the provisions, time in and out of the palace. If necessary, may at any time for suspicious personnel for inspection, and even searched, the so-called "records of the work mood, rectifying the virtue, a few of its discrepancy".

Ancient residential and office national leaders, known as the "forbidden area", so the guards, called "guard", guard force known as the "old guard". Was forbidden area Zhou Wang sentry, light and shade in "Zhou Lu thousand column, set ji", to assassinate hard to succeed.

Defend Zhou Wang points a few class people, habitat, line, observe the requirements of the different three guards, and send out the corresponding security personnel. Daily unattended slot in the palace is the most important, should pass strict "said," must be the nobles children born. Palace, head of the unattended called tzung Po as Zhou Wang confidant of confidant, a high position.

Zhou Wang guards of the origin, main consideration nobles "politically reliable", and when the meaning of the hostages, can avoid governors, secretary out rebellion. The "politically reliable", pay attention to family background of the said system, reference for past dynasties ruler and non cronies, confidant is become the captain of the guard ".

System of the qin dynasty established a set of armed to defend the country leader, become offspring

After entering the feudal society, defend the country led to increase the number of guards, quality have been greatly promoted, formed a complete system of the guard, the independent armed guard force.

System of the qin dynasty established a set of armed to defend the country leader, become offspring model: there are three guards from inside to outside, there are "WeiWei", "" card shark," lieutenant "respectively at the three sets of people, different security tasks, the guard force to have a clear division of responsibilities.

Unfortunately, although the qin dynasty to defend national leaders have "three insurance", is one of the most popular dynasties into trouble.

Qin ii, for example, hu hai is to make the captain of the guard, "zhao kill the card shark.

May be learned qin ii killed by imperial serious lesson, the han dynasty in safeguarding national leaders more exquisite design of the system, the division of labor is more clear. There are two armed security forces, the western han dynasty "confederate" and "north".

Confederate is the core guard, is responsible for the work of the western han dynasty palace, weiyang palace guards, the equivalent of "zhongnanhai guards regiment"; North army is responsible for the entire chang an defense work, the garrison is equivalent to the capital city. Then Liu Che and transform the north army, build 7 old guard, a total of 8 a captain, were stationed in the capital city suburbs, each other is not Chinese, is under the direct command of the emperor.

Later, Liu Che also established the "embroidery clothes straight conductor", also directed by the emperor. Embroidered garments command that may at any time to the streets of reconnaissance busting outlaws, spy terrorist organization is the law, then the security of the Ming dynasty also or is affected by this.

If you dont the imperial emperor control, trouble is big. As the late eastern han dynasty, the emperor was motionless imperial command, cao cao is imperial actual commander in chief. Is the most elite "butch" riding in the imperial army, nominally defend emperor Liu Xie, fact is guarding the emperor cao hold behest.

Song dynasty guard force the biggest, create "three official imperial" security system

Song dynasty imperial of large scale and complex system are all in the past.

The founding emperor song taizu, a former erros of imperial generals, and through the mutiny, sitting upon the throne of the emperor on knows the importance of security forces. So he attention imperial form, building a good soldier guard at the same time, and to incorporate local troops, expansion of the central imperial, build out of the largest in the history of national guard troops.

Song MAO treasure years, national military, 378000 people, including imperial has 194000 people. Then every emperor attaches importance to the construction of the old guard, emperor taizong of song dynasty to the national military 666000, including imperial 358000. The movable qingli periods and the imperial reached 826000.

It is important to note that in the song dynasty imperial emperor not only to defend, also to defend national territory, for their country. Some has place, but most of the city guards, stationed in bian city outside. Imperial very pay attention to training, Lin chong in the "water margin" is the bian city eight hundred thousand imperial coach, the gun great kung fu is particularly outstanding.

"Jing" in the emperors bodyguard "good soldier", for daily training, cavalry daily practice, five foot four practice every day.

However, song dynasty imperial many are decoration, ritualized. Because there are too many old guard, to power down, doesnt even have the pay. Song god of Zhao Xu have sighed: "poor country, army also." Later, the court for an imperial whole and every year. To the southern song dynasty, the imperial scale will reduce a lot.

The Ming dynasty, the introduction of the secret police detective

In the Ming dynasty, defend of the countrys leaders are more closely. One of the most outstanding, is introduced in the modern security system "the secret" system. In has not yet been proclaimed himself, the founding emperor zhu yuanzhang (Ming emperor) guards regiment, he set up his own directly under "straight on the guards army vault company", proclaimed himself after the expansion and into DouDuFu "forces" in the following year.

The 15th year of hongwu (1382), zhu yuanzhang withdrew after the royal guards regiment DouDuFu "army" and "instrument process", created the new royal guard force, "security army command department", "security" for short. Then set up the "flag", "the no.1 mansion" twelve guard mechanism, such as general "twelve who".

Ming emperor zhu di of the security system is very favour, usurp throne when resumed after the emperor was zhu yuanzhang revocation of town on a security company, and the twelve who QinBing expansion into 22 who, set up a more advanced than the han and tang dynasties, "the army and police" combining the national leaders to defend system.

The "police", it is responsible for patrolling the city area, maintain the security of five from the city

More terrorist, Zhu Dishe "east factory", this is a secret organization directly answerable to the emperor, emperor owners are prized eunuch. Zhu Jianshen (MingXian block) when the emperor and set up the "west". While there is time is not long, but like the east factory, is a notorious secret police agencies.

The qing dynasty in inheriting the national leaders of security system at the same time, the Ming dynasty has new rules to the security personnel selection, emphasis, palm portal and directly responsible for the emperor guard attendants and enemies and two class people, both have to as by children of official of manchu.

Third do a surname, 20 years old and from 26 to thirty-seven years of qianlong as is third guards of the five products. Jiangyuan, qianlong 40 years of one day, and with the driving out of the palace. Occasionally on "in and read the newspaper, has played the horn to escape, miff, recite the analects of Confucius tiger before out of Xia" the language of. Retinue a captain I wonder if this is what meaning, and have an immediate answer say: "ye call themselves must not resign DianShouZhe ears." Qianlong after listen to very happy, ask and group: "read" the analects "?" And said, read. "Asked family, age, called purport". Qianlong "see the meter degree criteria, voice clear", "agile" abnormal, great admiration, "is this".

And with their own intelligence and good at maneuvering, won the emperor heart, rise to immediately remove dry cleaning door guards, October leap in November rose queen bodyguard, gives the blue flag is manchuria (from yipin Wu Zhi). Since then, he constantly promotion, but it still depends on the identity of the imperial guard.

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